The EU water law - the Water Framework Directive (WFD) - is one of the European Union’s strongest, most ambitious pieces of environmental legislation. But it is being poorly implemented and enforced.


The following images and stories capture what is at stake, and failing to implement the WFD could impact on Europe’s rivers, lakes and wetlands, and the people, nature and economies they sustain.

Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), Velka Fatra National park, Slovakia


Photo: Tomas Hulik


These beautiful and elusive wild cats are protected by the EU Birds and Habitats Directives, but poaching and habitat destruction - which includes the degradation and noise pollution brought about by the construction of hydropower - remain a cause of concern in many areas.


Akrotiri Salt Lake, Cyprus


Photo: Albert Stoecker / BirdLife Cyprus


A hotspot for biodiversity and resting spot for flamingos, the site attracts thousands of migratory birds, who spend the winter months at the lake. An ecosystem-based conservation project, in combination with public engagement actions, took place from 2015 to 2017 to restore the area, contributing to the achievement of the Water Framework Directive’s objectives.

Saimaa ringed seal (Pusa hispida saimensis), Finland


Photo: Mervi Kunnasranta / WWF


Saimaa ringed seals are extremely rare and can only be found in Lake Saimaa, Finland’s largest freshwater lake. Fewer than 400 of these seals remain. The Water Framework Directive ensures that critical habitats like Lake Saimaa are kept healthy.

Talvivaara nickel mine disaster, Finland


Photo: Antti Lankinen, under license from Creative Commons


A cocktail of poisonous chemicals leaks from Finland’s Talvivaara nickel mine to the surrounding rivers and lakes - one of the country’s most notorious corporate environmental crimes cases.


Mining activities have a disastrous impact on freshwater ecosystems, and lobby groups are pushing to weaken the high environmental standards of the Water Framework Directive to allow even more projects to go ahead.

Pollution from the old, now obsolete, Băiuț mine into the Lăpuş River, Romania, 2018




The spill was caused by a breach in the dam at the entrance of the mine’s old gallery. In a matter of minutes, the red water flooded wide areas nearby. Loaded with heavy metals, the pollution had a severe impact on freshwater wildlife. The state of Romania should invest in the ecological rehabilitation of obsolete mines, which cause pollution spills after heavy rain, in line with the Water Framework Directive.

Low water of the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, Germany, 2018


Photo: AL-Travelpicture /


Last summer’s severe drought rendered the river impassable to ships and, as a result, dented German economic growth. The frequency and intensity of droughts is set to increase in the face of climate change. The Water Framework Directive was designed with ecosystem balance at its heart, and the understanding that governments must sustainably manage their rivers, lakes and groundwater to ensure a sustainable supply of good quality water for the health and prosperity of their citizens and nature.

Doñana National Park, Spain


Photo: Diego López / WWF Spain


The site harbours one of the world’s most iconic wetlands and pit-stops for migratory birds. Despite this, aggressive and, often, illegal irrigation and pollution are taking place in the park for the intensive production of strawberries and blueberries. Earlier this year, the European Commission decided to take Spain to the European Court of Justice over the serious deterioration of the wetland, and for failing to implement the Water Framework Directive and Birds and Habitats Directives.

Douro River Basin, Douro Valley, Portugal


Photo: p35 / Diogo Branco


The Douro contributes greatly to Portugal's wine trade and tourism, which this secluded part of the country is dependent on. People travel by boat to see the vineyard-laden mountains, hopping off at local farms for a sampling (or two). But the river basin has been severed by more than 70 large dams between Spain and Portugal, which are threatening the survival of species and people's livelihoods alike. Businesses like rafting companies have had to start over on new stretches of the river numerous times, and have become discouraged from investing further in the area.

Dead fish are pulled out of the River Tisza, Hungary, 2000


Photo: Nigel Dickinson / WWF


Poisoned dead fish are collected from the River Tisza following a case of cyanide pollution


This photo was taken around the same time that the Water Framework Directive came into effect, and shows the drastic need for EU countries to clean up their rivers, lakes and wetlands.

Acheloos River, Greece


Photo: dinosmichail /


The river has been the site of a battle against a water transfer project dating back to the 1980s, which would involve the construction of four dams. The destructive scheme has been blocked through six court rulings, most recently thanks to the Water Framework Directive.

Rhine River, Germany


Photo: picture-alliance/ Keystone / M.Duchene


Fish swim at the water's edge in search of shade and cooler temperatures. The 2018 heatwave caused the water to rise to 27 degrees, killing thousands of fish. As global warming worsens, it is vital for governments to ensure healthy rivers, lakes and wetlands - these are far more resilient, and can buffer and mitigate the impacts of climate change by absorbing carbon and acting as natural flood defence.

European otter (Lutra lutra), National Park of Abruzzo, Italy


Photo: R.Isotti, A.Cambone / Homo Ambiens / WWF


The species is currently classified as near threatened by IUCN, due to pressures such as pollution and the construction of destructive infrastructure, like dams. When fully implemented, the Water Framework Directive ensures that habitats such as these are kept healthy or are cleaned up so that they are able to house a rich array of biodiversity once more.

Beluga sturgeon (Huso huso), Danube River


Photo: WWF / Lubomir Hlasek


This ancient species live in the sea and migrate to spawn in rivers. Their spawning runs in the Danube and the Volga used to be legendary- up to 2,500 km. But today, their migration is a fraction of its former glory due to impassible dams like the Iron Gates complex in Serbia and Romania. Under the Water Framework Directive, governments are required to put a stop to harmful projects like these, and remove dams or barriers which are considered obsolete or environmentally destructive.

Marsh frog (Rana ridibunda), Drava River, Croatia


Photo: Goran Šafarek


The Drava is one of Europe’s last free-flowing river. Following a year-long campaign led by environmental groups, the planned construction of several hydropower dams was successfully halted. The dams would have destroyed the area’s exceptional biodiversity, increased the risk of flooding, impacted on communities living near the river, and caused a deterioration in water quality, which is not permitted under the Water Framework Directive.

Whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybridus), Croatia


Photo: Goran Šafarek


Terns can be found in almost all parts of the world, on seashores as well as on river banks. Most are migratory birds that spend their winters in warmer southern regions. The Water Framework Directive ensures the same minimum water quality standards across Europe, which enable migratory birds like these to safely use fresh and coastal waters as their habitat.

Removal of the Sindi Dam, Pärnu River, Estonia


Photo: Ministry of Environment, Estonia


The Pärnu River is historically the biggest salmon river in Estonia. But the Sindi Dam - at 151m wide and 4.5m high - was a major (and now obsolete) obstacle. Its removal is part of an ongoing historical river restoration project in Estonia that will remove 8-10 dams and open up 3,300 km of river basin. The majority of these dam removals are funded by the European Union, thanks to the Water Framework Directive's strict obligation to not just protect but also restore freshwater ecosystems across Europe.

Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber), Austria


Photo: Leopold Kanzler


Beavers requires year-round access to water, such as slow-flowing rivers, streams, or lakes, surrounded by woodlands. The Water Framework Directive protects these critical habitats, obliging Member States to clean them up by 2027 at the very latest.

Brown bear (Ursus arctos), Finland


Photo: Ola Jennersten / WWF Sweden


Despite brown bear populations having been in decline over the past 500 years - mainly as a result of habitat loss - they are now slowly recovering. However, this hopeful trend could be at risk should the Water Framework Directive be weakened, given how dependent the species is on healthy rivers and lakes for a large part of its diet.

Mura River, Slovenia


Photo: Matevž Lenarčič


The river was recently saved from plans to construct many hydropower dams across the river, which would have transformed a healthy, free-flowing river into a series of lifeless reservoirs. The planned dams violated Slovenian law, as well as the Water Framework Directive and Birds and Habitats Directives.

Belgrade, Serbia, 2019


Photo: Radomir Duvnjak, via the Blue Heart of Europe campaign


Thousands take to the streets to protest against the planned construction of hundreds of hydropower plants. More than 850 are planned in Serbia alone, about 200 of which in nature reserves. The image captures the growing awareness of the true value of freshwater ecosystems in EU and accession countries, which is also reflected in the 375,000+ citizens from across the region who called on the European Commission to keep the Water Framework Directive in its current form.

Weser River, Germany


Photo: Georg Witschorke / BUND


Since the 1880s, the flow of the river has been drastically changed due to river dredging to enable ships to navigate upstream, which has had a drastic ecological impact. Parts of the river, though, are still relatively untouched, and are under protection. In 2006, additional river dredging was planned, which would have threatened the few remaining natural areas of the river. Thanks to the Water Framework Directive, NGOs in Germany were able to stop this development because, under this law, EU Member States cannot allow the health of any water body to deteriorate further.

Removal of the Vezins Dam from the Selune River, France


Photo: Roberto Epple / ERN

In a historic moment for Europe’s rivers, the first breach was made in the 36 metre high Vezins Dam this summer – kick-starting the biggest dam removal in Europe so far. Under the Water Framework Directive, Member States are obliged to take measures to restore their rivers so they can be returned to good health by 2027. Removing old or obsolete dams is a highly effective way for them to meet their commitments under the legislation, as it helps to restore a river’s connectivity, facilitates the achievement of good or high status, and restores biodiversity and fish stocks.